Within or Between? Comparing Experimental Designs for Virtual Embodiment Studies

Grégoire Richard1, Thomas Pietrzak1, Ferran Argelaguet2, Anatole Lécuyer2, Géry Casiez1,3
1Univ. Lille, Inria, CNRS, Centrale Lille, UMR 9189 CRIStAL, Lille, France, 2Inria, France, 3Institut Universitaire de France (IUF), Paris, France

This page provides additional material to our VR '22 paper.

When designing virtual embodiment studies, one of the key choices is the nature of the experimental factors, either between-subjects or within-subjects. However, it is well known that each design has advantages and disadvantages in terms of statistical power, sample size requirements and confounding factors. This paper reports a within-subjects experiment with 92 participants comparing self-reported embodiment scores under a visuomotor task with two conditions: synchronous motions and asynchronous motions with a latency of 300 ms. With the gathered data, using a Monte-Carlo method, we created numerous simulations of within- and between-subjects experiments by selecting subsets of the data. In particular, we explored the impact of the number of participants on the replicability of the results from the 92 within-subjects experiment. For the between-subjects simulations, only the first condition for each user was considered to create the simulations. The results showed that while the replicability of the results increased as the number of participants increased for the within-subjects simulations, no matter the number of participants, between-subjects simulations were not able to replicate the initial results. We discuss the potential reasons that could have led to this surprising result and potential methodological practices to mitigate them.


Links and Downloads


Richard, G., Pietrzak, T., Argelaguet, F., Lécuyer, A. & Casiez, G. (2022). Within or Between? Comparing Experimental Designs for Virtual Embodiment Studies. In proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Virtual Reality (IEEE VR), 186-195. IEEE.